ME - Mechanical Engineering


Online Magazine for Mechanical Engineers

Chinese Company CSR Qingdao Sifang (a wholly-owned subsidiary of China South Rail Corporation) has made the world's first Hydrogen powered tram aimed at introducing an environment friendly option to the Chinese mass transit sector. This is the first time that hydrogen energy has been applied in the tram manufacturing. China has also become the first country to possess the technology to make hydrogen-fueled streetcars.
China's First Hydrogen-powered Tram
For completing this project it took 2 years with help of research institutions.

Instead of burning fossil fuels for running of the tram, the engine is run by burning pure Hydrogen. Hydrogen fuel reacts with Oxygen in a Hydrogen fuel cell to produce heat which is used to drive the engine. These Hydrogen Fuel cells are used and tested in different types of vehicles, including buses.
Hydrogen fuel cell tank
Though the technology Hydrogen-powered tram is far from new, it has never been tested on this large scale before and the biggest predecessors have been much smaller automobiles. It has become a source of new debate whether such locomotives can replace the contemporary ones that are fuming clouds of toxic emissions daily.
Inside seats of tram
Image courtesy of news.cn
Each tram has 60 seats and can transport at least 380 passengers at a time. This tram gets enough power from just one tank of hydrogen to travel 100 km at a top speed of 70 km/h. Recharging hydrogen fuel tank of the tram takes about 3 minutes.

Source: The Times of India
Skateboard Bolt is designed in Italy, created by Lorenzo Cella. He is a robotic engineering student and a commuter. It's not just an electric skateboard. Bolt is something new. It is the world's smallest electric vehicle.
Electric skateboard bolt picture
Bolt is the first really portable vehicle that can be carried anywhere. At home, in the classroom or in the office.
It is an amazing mean of transport: small, lightweight, easy to use, with a low power consumption and smart.
Bolt gives its best in short trips from home. Go to to class, to the gym, to university, to cafeteria, to the library.

Electric Skateboard size comparison
skateboard size comparision
Fast
Bolt has a top speed of 21 kmph and it's just as fast as a bicycle!
It has a range of about 10 kilometers, more than what you need for the short daily commute in the city.

Portable
Bolt has dimensions of 60x25x10.5cm (23.5x10x4 inches) is the smallest electric skateboard in the world and is compact enough to be carried anywhere.

Light
It has a 4 kg of weight, it is light enough to be carried with no effort on your backpack or by hand when not in use.

USB Port
Bolt has a built-in standard USB port that can be used to recharge your devices on the go. Bolt's battery is so powerful that can recharge your mobile up to 20 times.
Bolt can also charge your phone

Technical Specifications
Size: 60x25x10cm (23x10x4 inches)
Weight: 4kg (9 pounds)
Power: 2000W, Sensored Motor
Battery: 5000mAh LiPo
Materials: Wood
Connectivity: Bluetooth Low Energy
Integration: Smartphone App
Charging: From empty to charge full in about 60-90 minutes
Electric Skateboard BOLT features

During motocross racing, riders have been facing with many choices on the race track design and conditions. To stand first in racing competition, rider has to choose the best lines on the racing track. Many factors exist when deciding which line to take through a corner.
Kinetic Energy, Newton's First Law of Motion, Earth Gravity affect motocross rider when trying to take some tricky corners on race track.

This visual infographic helps the motocross riders to pick the fastest line.
Motocross Racing Facts
Infographic credits: motogrossgear.com
Equation shown in the image is the Stefan-Boltzmann law. "P" is the power radiated by the ideal radiator and 'σ' is is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant, which has the value
σ = 5.67*10-8 Wm-2K-4
Stefan–Boltzmann law equation

Where 'P' is in Watts, emissivity (e) has no units, Area (A) m2 and Temperature (T) is in Kelvin. In the thermodynamic analysis the energy density is related from a square per unit time and per unit area. Thus the heat interior surface of an enclosure produces a certain energy density of thermal radiation in the enclosure. We are interested in radiant exchange with surfaces - hence the reason for the expression of radiation from a surface in terms of its temperature.
Russia’s T-14 tank, based upon 'Armata' universal chassis system, weighs 48 tons. The T-14 war tank was equipped with an adjustable suspension capable of adapting to varying relief, terrain type and vehicle speed, resulting in increased speed while moving in columns, as well as over rugged terrain. The suspension system of T - 14 tank will also alleviate crew fatigue, while assisting the fire control system to deliver accurate fire while on the move.
The composite multi layered passive armor protection of the T-14 tank is built with steel made by electro-slag remelting and is combined with new composites to protect the T-14 tank against the most advanced modern weaponry.
The T-14 battle tank is equipped with the Chelyabinsk A-85-3A X-diesel engine that is capable of producing power up to 1500 hp. T -14 battle tank also has a tank information control system (TICS) that monitors all assemblies and components, diagnoses malfunctions and controls on-board systems.
Technical Specifications of the T-14  Armata War Tank
Armata Infographic credits screen capture from FMSO
T-14 tank can attack the target upto the range 7 to 8 km. It can fire targets at rate of 10-12 per minute. Maximum speed is 80 to 90 km/hr. Tank need to have a crew of 3 personnel to enter battle field. It has 7.62 mm remote controlled machine gun at the top. Engine can be replaced with new engine within half an hour. High resolution video cameras are used for seeing enemy targets.
Lance Abernethy man from Auckland, New Zealand Creates Smallest Drill Machine ever. He works as a maintenance engineer, fixing machinery in a factory.He likes creating small things when he was a kid.
The claims of being the World's smallest Drill Machine are unofficial as of now, However, Lance Abernethy does claim that this drill is the smallest one ever created.
Lance Abernethy 3d prints a working drill machine
3D printing (additive manufacturing) is any of various processes used to make a three-dimensional object. In 3D printing, additive processes are used, in which successive layers of material are laid down under computer control.
Drill Machine standing vertical on coin
To create the world’s smallest working drill, he used Ultimaker 2 3D printer. To make design he used a CAD software package called Onshape.
It took him 3 hours to solder and try and squeeze all the parts in. The wires keep on breaking off when he was trying to connect them and it was a difficult for him to hold them in place and try to not short the battery.
When the drill machine was completed it measures 17 mm ×7.5 mm ×13 mm dimensions. It holds a 0.5 mm twist drill and can drill through soft objects.

The animated infographic of how a four-stroke Otto-cycle engine works.
For loading this infographic animation might take 1 or 2 minutes to load depending upon your internet speed, please bear with us.

A Hammer is a mechanical tool that delivers a sudden impact to an object. Commonly hammers are used to drive nails, fit parts, forge metal and break apart objects. There are different types of Hammers, They vary in shape, size and structure. Here 23 different types of hammers pictures are shown below.

Brick Hammer
Brick Hammer

The chisel side scores a line around a brick. The brick hammer can break the brick in two parts.

Traditional curved-claw Hammer
Traditional curved-claw Hammer
Traditional curved-claw Hammer drives nails well and removes nails easily with the rocking action of its curved claw.

Body mechanic's Hammer
Body mechanic's Hammer
Body mechanic's hammer is used along with a small curved anvil called a dolly to remove dents from car panels.

Lineman's Hammer
Lineman's Hammer
Lineman's hammer is best suited to driving big lag screws and hammering bolts in utility-pole work.

Chasing Hammer
Chasing Hammer
Chasing hammers are designed and shape metal jewelry.

Titanium framing Hammer
Titanium framing Hammer
Titanium framing hammer has a titanium body with a sixteen-inch handle for maximum nail-extracting leverage.

Solid-steel framing Hammer
Solid-steel framing Hammer
Solid-steel framing Hammer is one-piece forged-steel design resists breakage and the waffle-pattern face grips nails.

Welder's Hammer
Welder's Hammer
Welder's hammer has weird-looking spring helps handle increases comfort and dissipates heat.

Ball-peen Hammer
Ball-peen Hammer
Ball-peen hammer can be used to shape the head of a rivet or reach into small recesses.

Tinner's Hammer
Tinner's Hammer
Tinner hammers are sharpened cross-peen can complete a folded seam or set a rolled edge.

Prospector's Hammer
Prospector's Hammer
Prospector's hammer has the head breaks rocks apart and the pick splits them cleanly along existing cracks.

Electrician's Hammer
Electrician's Hammer
Electrician's Hammer has a long-necked that helps electricians drive nails at hard places.

Drywall Hammer
Drywall Hammer
Chops errant bits of drywall and sets nails without breaking through walls' paper faces.

Toolmaker's Hammer
Toolmaker's Hammer
Toolmaker hammer is used for delicate work in the machine shop. The hole in the head has a magnifying glass.

Soft-face Hammer
Soft-face Hammer
Soft-face hammer is used to bend metal, wood, plastic or composite, When the surface must not be damaged.

Tack Hammer
Tack Hammer
Tack hammer has the split end of the head is, essentially, a horseshoe magnet for holding nails in place.

Dead-blow Hammer
Dead-blow Hammer
Dead-blow Hammer has an iron fist in a velvet glove. A non marring hammer that hits with tremendous force.

Railroad-spike maul Hammer
Railroad-spike maul Hammer
Railroad-spike maul Hammer is used for driving a railroad spike into a creosote-soaked tie.

Stone sledge Hammer
Stone sledge Hammer
Stone sledge Hammer is generally used for breaking giant rocks.

Blacksmith's sledge Hammer
Blacksmith's sledge Hammer
Blacksmith's sledge hammer is designed for shaping a bar of white-hot steel.

Sledge Hammer
Sledge Hammer
Sledge Hammer is best employed to drive wedges or knock rigid assemblies together or apart.

Bushing Hammer
Bushing Hammer
Bushing hammer looks like a three-pound meat tenderizer, but this adds a rough texture to stone.

Half-hatchet Hammer
Half-hatchet Hammer
Half hammer, half hatchet can be used for many purposes.

All 23 Hammers Image Courtesy: Popular Mechanics
Watt linkage is also known as the parallel linkage. Watt mechanical linkage was invented by James Watt. In Watt's linkage central moving point of is constrained to travel on an approximation to a straight line. Watt's Linkage can be found in some automobile vehicles at suspensions that allows the axle of a vehicle to travel vertically while preventing sideways motion.
Animation of Watt Linkage Mechanism

Application of Watt's Linkage:

Watt's linkage mechanism is used in the rear axle of some car suspensions as an improvement over the Panhard rod. These mechanism is used to prevent relative sideways motion between the axle and body of the car. It approximates a vertical straight line motion more closely and does so while locating the centre of the axle rather than toward one side of the vehicle, as commonly used when fitting a Panhard rod.
Panhard rod consists of two horizontal rods of equal length mounted each side to the wheels of automobile. At center of Panhard rod, a vertical bar is connected. The center of this vertical rod the point which is constrained to move in a straight line motion is mounted to the center of the axle. All pivoting points are free to rotate in a vertical plane.
Watt's Linkage Rear Suspension
Watt’s linkage can be seen in the rear suspension of above animation as two Panhard rods mounted opposite each other.
The Word's Biggest Aircraft is Airlander 10. It is a 300 feet long.
Airlander 10
Part blimp, part plane, part helicopter of Airlander 10 was originally created by British design company Hybrid Air Vehicles for military surveillance by the U.S. Army.
Airlander 10 world's lagest aircraft
This aircraft is named as Airlander 10 because it can carry weight of 10 tons, It is made of a bespoke fabric of carbon fiber, kevlar and mylar, while the pressure of the helium inside maintains the aircraft's shape.
To get off from the ground Airlander 10 uses 325 Hp V8 diesel engines, that power the propellers; the cockpit is designed for one pilot and one observer.
Ring clock jewelry
Ring Clock gives us the time on hand fingers. This is a beautiful marriage of the ring and the watch.
Ring Clock gives time on hands.

Technical specifications of Ring clock:

Materials - For making this Ring Clock Stainless steel material is used for jewelry and watches with 316L being the type commonly used for such applications.
LED Lights - An LED lamp is a solid-state lamp that uses light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as the source of light. LED lamps offer long service life and high energy efficiency.
Wireless charging - Qi is an interface standard developed by the Wireless Power Consortium for inductive electrical power transfer over distances of up to 4 cm.
Water-resistant - Suitable for everyday use. Splash/rain resistant. NOT suitable for showering, bathing, swimming, snorkelling, water related work and fishing.
Energy saving - Automatic turn off after 1 minute. Our next task is to allow the rotation kinetic energy to give the power to the LED lights meaning that the next version of Ring Clock can be fully environmentally friendly.
Ring clock time display

Specification of prototype:

Ring body material: 316L surgical stainless steel (allergy free)
Light source: 144 energy safe ultra thin mono-color LED
Light color: blue or orange LED (optional)
Lighting time: displays for 1 minute after the rotation of the ring
Battery specification: 6 mAh, ultra thin rechargeable lithium polymer battery
Running time: 1 week with normal use (15 times activation per day) or 2 hours constant use

Ring Clock Dimensions:

Width: 14 mm
Thickness: 3-3.5 mm
Size (inside diameter): 15.7-23.8 mm

The air-standard Brayton cycle is a theoretical cycle for gas turbines. Brayton cycle consists of two reversible adiabatic or isentropic processes and two constant pressure processes.
The Brayton cycle represented on p-V and T-s coordinates. Brayton cycle is similar to Diesel cycle in compression and heat addition. The isentropic expansion of Diesel cycle is further extended followed by constant pressure heat rejection.
p-V and T-s diagram diagram for the air-standard brayton cycle
Pressure-volume and Temperature-entropy diagram for the air-standard Brayton cycle
Where,
1-2: Isentropic process
2-3: Isobaric process
3-4: Isentropic Process
4-1: Isobaric process

Thermal Efficiency of Brayton Cycle can be calculated by the formula
Brayton cycle efficiency
Where k is the specific heat ratio Cp/Cv.

A handgun is a weapon generally used for security purpose. Guns are designed to discharge projectiles (bullets) depending upon the amount of velocity need. Projection shot (bullet) by gun varies according to design but is usually effected by the action of gas pressure, either produced through the rapid combustion of a propellant or compressed and stored by mechanical means.
The purpose of a handgun is to kill people or animals.
Handgun parts
Image Via:gatech.edu


Checkout few Animations of Gun:
Handgun working
GIF Source: noble-empire.com

gun fire shot gif
GIF Source: imgur.com