If an object with a higher temperature comes in contact with an object of lower temperature, it will transfer heat to the lower temperature object. The objects will approach the same temperature and in the absence of loss to other objects, they will maintain a single constant temperature. Therefore, thermal equilibrium is attained.
The Thermodynamics Zeroth Law states that if two systems are at the same time in thermal equilibrium with a third system, they are in equilibrium with each other.
zeroth law of thermodynamics, three bodies are in equilibrium
If objects A and C are in thermal equilibrium with B, then object A is in thermal equilibrium with object C. Practically this means all three objects are at the same temperature and it forms the basis for comparison of temperatures.

The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics states that:-
two system which are equal in temperature to a third system are equal in temperature to each other.
In Electric Discharge Machining process an arc is produced when two current-carrying wires are short-circuited. During this machining process, a small portion of metals is also eroded away, leaving a small cater. this phenomenon is used in electric discharge machining (EDM). EDM machining process is also known as spark erosion machining.
EDM involves a controlled erosion of electrically conductive materials by the initiation of electrically conductive materials by the initiation of rapid and repetitive spark discharges between the tool and workpiece separated by a small gap. Each electrical spark produces sufficient heat to melt a portion of the workpiece and usually, some of the tooling materials also. Due to rapid heating, the dielectric fluid evaporates in the arc gap which increases the resistance until the arc is interrupted. The associated shock wave and flowing dielectric fluid remove the gas bubbles which later collapse.
Schematic illustration of the electrical-discharge machining process
Electro chemical dissolution is based on the Faraday's laws, stated as follows:
The amount of electrochemical dissolution or deposition(m) is proportional to amount of charge (Q) passed.
The amount of material deposited or dissolved further depends on electrochemical equivalence (ECE) of the material, that is, the ratio of the atomic weight (A) and velocity (v).

Summary of EDM characteristics:

  • Mechanics of MRR: Melting and evaporation aided by cavitations (spark erosion).
  • Medium: Dielectric fluid (generally kerosene).
  • Tool material: Cu, Brass, Cu-W Alloy, Ag-W-Alloy, Graphite.
  • Wear Ratio: 0.1 to 10.
  • Maximum MRR: 5*10^3 ccmm/min.
  • Specific power consumption: 1.8 W/cc.mm/min.
  • Gap between work piece and tool: 10 to 125 µm.


  • L/D ratio as high as 20 can be achieved.
  • There is no contact between tool and workpiece so no forces acting in machining. So no residual stresses are generated in machining.
  • Out of all the unconvectional machining of methods, EDM is the one which gives highest MRR,
  • Melting and evaporation is the mechanism for chip formation, the mechanical properties of work piece material will not affect the material removal rate (MRR).
  • Surface finish produced will be better.


  • Used only for electrically conductive material.
  • Electrode wear is more.
  • Re-hardening occurs due to heat generated during machining.
  • Not possible to make exact square corners.


  • Blind cavities and narrow slots in dies, minimum diameter hole can be produced is 0.13mm.
  • L/D ratio is as high as 20 can be done. So, due to this, EDM is particularly useful in machining of small holes, orifices, slots in diesel fuel injection nozzles, airbrake valves and aircraft engines etc.
It's not difficult to see why Sports Auto Magazine named the Infiniti Q50 its 2014 Car of the Year.
Infiniti Q50 car is available in two variants the Q50 premium and the Q50 sports. This luxury vehicle perfectly blends performance, artistry and technology into one stunning and luxurious package.
Under the hood, the Q50 Premium is powered by a 208-hp 2.0-litre Turbocharged V4 / 326-hp 3.7-litre V6 engine. The engine block is made out of aluminium alloy which offers the benefits of reduced weight and increased responsiveness.
2014 Infiniti Q50 car

The Q50's Direct Adaptive Steering (not available on the Q50 2.0-litre turbocharged variant) gives drivers a better feel and sense of control achieved through digitally enhanced steering connection. This translates to a high level of handling customizability while enabling drivers to filter out unwanted vibrations. The 2.0-litre turbocharged engine variant gives drivers the benefits of sustained acceleration and a high level of responsiveness.
The Backup Collision Intervention technology bolsters a driver's awareness and confidence by scanning the rear area during back-up. Should the sensor detect anything, it will give the driver a warning or even stop the car.
This feature is perfectly complemented by the Around View Monitor that gives drivers a virtual 360° view of the environment during parking. This enhanced vision gives drivers an unparalleled level of awareness.
Another important safety feature the Q50 boasts of is the Intelligent Cruise Control. When the sensor detects traffic slow down, the Q50 automatically slows itself down. When the sensor detects that the path is clear, the Q50 will accelerate to your desired speed.
The sedan's Zero-Lift Aerodynamics enables balanced airflow while driving which translates to enhanced stability whatever the conditions are.
The Infiniti Intouch technology allows drivers and passengers to fully integrate their digital life with the Q50 — from music streaming to social media to reading emails.
Take a quick peek inside the Q50's interiors and you will see the high level of craftsmanship involved. In fact, when you touch the armrest, you'll have an instinctively rewarding feel. Infiniti has achieved this by surveying over 300 people around the world, asking them what the most pleasing tactile feel is.
With the Q50's visionary sport design, you will surely be getting lots of envious looks – from the sedan's signature sports fascia and air dam to its 19" split-spoke aluminum alloy wheels. Inside, the sport leather-appointed seats signal unmatched luxuriousness.
For more details about this car visit Infiniti Q50 - Official Worldwide Site.
Honda developed VTEC (Variable Timing and Lift Electronic Control) to improve the volumetric efficiency of a four-stroke internal combustion engine. Ikuo Kajitani, engineer at Honda was the first involved in the development of these four-valve engines. The Honda's VTEC system uses two camshaft profiles and hydraulically selects between profiles.
Honda VTEC system
Image source: hdabob.com
VTEC system was used by Honda for good fuel economy and smooth operation of vehicle.

Further Reading:
The VTEC Engine ~ world.honda.com
The increasing demand for basic commodities has driven up prices and spurred a global mining boom, but it is not an easy task to get them from mines because big layers of rock have to be moved first. Mw Hire Group Infographic contains the details of 5 heavy machines around the world that can make task easy.

Worlds Largest 5 diggers included in this infographic are:
  1. Bucyrus RH400 Hydraulic Shovel
  2. Takraf Bagger 293 Bucket-Wheel Evacuator
  3. Caterpillar 797F
  4. Metso Mobile Crusher
  5. Le Tourneau 2350
Typical Layout of Coal-Fired Power Plant

Components of a Thermal Power Plant
1.Coal conveyor
5.Coal ash
6.Air preheater
7.Electrostatic precipitator
8.Smoke stack
12.Cooling towers
14.High-Voltage power lines

To See Complete operation of Coal-Fired Power Plant animation Click Here.
During 17th century, Daniel Bernoulli investigated the forces present in a moving fluid, derived an equation and named it as an Bernoulli's Equation. Below image shows one of many forms of Bernoulli's equation.
The Bernoulli equation gives an approximate equation that is valid only in inviscid regions of flow where net viscous forces are negligibly small compared to inertial, gravitational or pressure forces. Such regions occur outside of boundary layers and waves.
Bernoulli Equation
Image Source: Hyperphysics

Despite its simplicity, Bernoulli's Principle has proven to be a very powerful tool in fluid mechanics.
Care must be taken when applying the Bernoulli equation since it is an approximation that applies only to inviscid regions of flow. In general, frictional effects are always important very close to solid walls and directly downstream of bodies.
The motion of a particle and the path it follows are described by the velocity vector as a function of time and space coordinates and the initial position of the particle. When the flow is steady, all particles that pass through the same point follow the same path and the velocity vectors remain tangent to the path at every point.
According to Varignon's theorem, the algebraic sum of several concurrent forces about any point is equal to the moments of the moments of their resultant about the point.
Halfbike 2 is designed by architect Martin Angelov, co-founder of Tuscon, Arizona-based transport design company Kolelinia.
three wheeled Halfbike on city street
Halfbike team has taken the core driving mechanism of a classical bicycle (a wheel connected to a crankset). The result - a pedal powered 3 wheeler vehicle that trains your balance and reflexes in a new way. Halfbike 2 not only affects your physical level but also affects the way you perceive movement and enhances your senses. The standing rider position is essential for the Halfbike 2. It brings you closer to natural walking and it’s the only way to control the vehicle with your whole body and not just your hands.
Halfbike on city street
Halfbike 2 has pedal same as bicycle. In halfbike 2 there is no seat to sit, rider has to stand on pedal, and apply force on it to move forward. Backside wheels are very short compared to front wheel.
Halfbike folded

Halfbike Specifications:
The Halfbike is 1.1 metre long and 1 metre high, it can be folded in half can fit easily in the trunk of car. It Weighs around 8kg, the frame is made from aluminium metal with the handlebars formed from treated plywood. It is available in two variant colors black and white.
Halfbike 2 Specifications
Halfbike team emphasize on the clear and minimalist design and optimized details for better navigation in the city streets.
Check out Halfbike II and Kickstarter pages for more details.
Chinese Company CSR Qingdao Sifang (a wholly-owned subsidiary of China South Rail Corporation) has made the world's first Hydrogen powered tram aimed at introducing an environment friendly option to the Chinese mass transit sector. This is the first time that hydrogen energy has been applied in the tram manufacturing. China has also become the first country to possess the technology to make hydrogen-fueled streetcars.
China's First Hydrogen-powered Tram
For completing this project it took 2 years with help of research institutions.

Instead of burning fossil fuels for running of the tram, the engine is run by burning pure Hydrogen. Hydrogen fuel reacts with Oxygen in a Hydrogen fuel cell to produce heat which is used to drive the engine. These Hydrogen Fuel cells are used and tested in different types of vehicles, including buses.
Hydrogen fuel cell tank
Though the technology Hydrogen-powered tram is far from new, it has never been tested on this large scale before and the biggest predecessors have been much smaller automobiles. It has become a source of new debate whether such locomotives can replace the contemporary ones that are fuming clouds of toxic emissions daily.
Inside seats of tram
Image courtesy of news.cn
Each tram has 60 seats and can transport at least 380 passengers at a time. This tram gets enough power from just one tank of hydrogen to travel 100 km at a top speed of 70 km/h. Recharging hydrogen fuel tank of the tram takes about 3 minutes.

Source: The Times of India
Skateboard Bolt is designed in Italy, created by Lorenzo Cella. He is a robotic engineering student and a commuter. It's not just an electric skateboard. Bolt is something new. It is the world's smallest electric vehicle.
Electric skateboard bolt picture
Bolt is the first really portable vehicle that can be carried anywhere. At home, in the classroom or in the office.
It is an amazing mean of transport: small, lightweight, easy to use, with a low power consumption and smart.
Bolt gives its best in short trips from home. Go to to class, to the gym, to university, to cafeteria, to the library.

Electric Skateboard size comparison
skateboard size comparision
Bolt has a top speed of 21 kmph and it's just as fast as a bicycle!
It has a range of about 10 kilometers, more than what you need for the short daily commute in the city.

Bolt has dimensions of 60x25x10.5cm (23.5x10x4 inches) is the smallest electric skateboard in the world and is compact enough to be carried anywhere.

It has a 4 kg of weight, it is light enough to be carried with no effort on your backpack or by hand when not in use.

USB Port
Bolt has a built-in standard USB port that can be used to recharge your devices on the go. Bolt's battery is so powerful that can recharge your mobile up to 20 times.
Bolt can also charge your phone

Technical Specifications
Size: 60x25x10cm (23x10x4 inches)
Weight: 4kg (9 pounds)
Power: 2000W, Sensored Motor
Battery: 5000mAh LiPo
Materials: Wood
Connectivity: Bluetooth Low Energy
Integration: Smartphone App
Charging: From empty to charge full in about 60-90 minutes
Electric Skateboard BOLT features

During motocross racing, riders have been facing with many choices on the race track design and conditions. To stand first in racing competition, rider has to choose the best lines on the racing track. Many factors exist when deciding which line to take through a corner.
Kinetic Energy, Newton's First Law of Motion, Earth Gravity affect motocross rider when trying to take some tricky corners on race track.

This visual infographic helps the motocross riders to pick the fastest line.
Equation shown in the image is the Stefan-Boltzmann law. "P" is the power radiated by the ideal radiator and 'σ' is is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant, which has the value
σ = 5.67*10-8 Wm-2K-4
Stefan–Boltzmann law equation

Where 'P' is in Watts, emissivity (e) has no units, Area (A) m2 and Temperature (T) is in Kelvin. In the thermodynamic analysis the energy density is related from a square per unit time and per unit area. Thus the heat interior surface of an enclosure produces a certain energy density of thermal radiation in the enclosure. We are interested in radiant exchange with surfaces - hence the reason for the expression of radiation from a surface in terms of its temperature.
Russia’s T-14 tank, based upon 'Armata' universal chassis system, weighs 48 tons. The T-14 war tank was equipped with an adjustable suspension capable of adapting to varying relief, terrain type and vehicle speed, resulting in increased speed while moving in columns, as well as over rugged terrain. The suspension system of T - 14 tank will also alleviate crew fatigue, while assisting the fire control system to deliver accurate fire while on the move.
The composite multi layered passive armor protection of the T-14 tank is built with steel made by electro-slag remelting and is combined with new composites to protect the T-14 tank against the most advanced modern weaponry.
The T-14 battle tank is equipped with the Chelyabinsk A-85-3A X-diesel engine that is capable of producing power up to 1500 hp. T -14 battle tank also has a tank information control system (TICS) that monitors all assemblies and components, diagnoses malfunctions and controls on-board systems.
Technical Specifications of the T-14  Armata War Tank
Armata Infographic credits screen capture from FMSO
T-14 tank can attack the target upto the range 7 to 8 km. It can fire targets at rate of 10-12 per minute. Maximum speed is 80 to 90 km/hr. Tank need to have a crew of 3 personnel to enter battle field. It has 7.62 mm remote controlled machine gun at the top. Engine can be replaced with new engine within half an hour. High resolution video cameras are used for seeing enemy targets.